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End Notes

This section is the result of an exercise to identify any and all passages in which the virtue in question appears in a passage with at least one other of the 2 Peter virtues.  Given the nature of this task, one should expect decreasing numbers of collateral passages as the sequence continues, because latter virtues have already been dealt with by previous virtues' collateral passages.


Note:  as you survey these passages, on occasion you will discover the use of the symbols:  C, Y and A.  These relate to terms Child, Youth, and Adult used in this CYA section.



FAITH  =  F  =  πίστις

V - Mark 4:40

"And He said to them, “Why are you so timid?  How is it that you have no faith?"

Faith does not produce timidity [δειλοί/fearful].  What does Faith produce?

The opposite of timidity, boldness!  (V)

Note that F producing V implies a sequence in this developmental process!


V - Rom 15:13

"Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit."

In believing (F already present) [πιστεύειν] we may be filled with Joy (V) [χαρᾶς]  → That [εἰς = into, toward, for] you may abound in Hope (E)[ἐλπίδι]

Sequencing implied!  [F → V → E]


V - Phil 1:25

"And convinced of this, I know that I shall remain and continue with you all for your progress and joy in the faith,"

IN (presupposing the existence of) F [πιστεύειν]  (produces)→ Joy (V)[χαρὰν] & progress (growth)

Sequencing implied!  [F → V]


KS - John 8:31-34

"31Jesus therefore was saying to those Jews who had believed Him, “If you abide in My word, then you are truly disciples of Mine; 32and you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.” 33They answered Him, “We are Abraham’s offspring, and have never yet been enslaved to anyone; how is it that You say, ‘You shall become free’?” 34Jesus answered them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who commits sin is the slave of sin."

had believed (F)[πεπιστευκότας] → shall Know the truth (K)[γνώσεσθε] → shall make you free [ἐλευθερώσει](from sin?  That's what Thayer (1889, p. 204, l. 51, Left) said of this verse.) (SC? or speaking of conversion?).

This 'Could' be a support for sequentiality.  It's unclear.

Just for fun, note their response:  'We are Abraham’s offspring, and have never yet been enslaved to anyone'.  What happened to Moses?  Weren't the Jews slaves in Egypt?  Didn't he struggle to get them freed?


K - John 8:43-45

"43“Why do you not understand what I am saying? It is because you cannot hear My word. 44“You are of your father the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. Whenever he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own nature; for he is a liar, and the father of lies. 45“But because I speak the truth, you do not believe Me."

“hearing” implies (F)[πιστεύετέ]   no F → no K

Sequentiality possible, but not required or implied.


K - John 10:38

"but if I do them, though you do not believe Me, believe the works, that you may know and understand that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father.”

Believe (F)[πιστεύητε] Christ's works → K [γνῶτε] of His nature

Sequencing implied!  [F → K]


E - James 1:3

"knowing that the testing of your faith produces endurance."

F [πίστεως] tested → endurance (E)[ὑπομονήν]

Sequencing specified!  [F → E]


L - 1 Cor. 13:2

"And if I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and all knowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing."

F [πίστιν] & K [γνῶσιν]  'less' than (L)[ἀγάπην].  Lower on sequence?  Haven't attained goal?

This 'Could' be a support for sequentiality.  It's unclear.


L - 1 Cor. 13:4

"Love is patient, love is kind, and is not jealous; love does not brag and is not arrogant,"

Love is patient (already has E!)  Sequencing implied!


L - 1 Cor. 13:7

"bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things."

Love believes (already has F!)[πιστεύει]

Love is endures (already has E!)[ὑπομένει]

Love is hopes (already has Y!)[ἐλπίζει]

Sequencing implied!



VIRTUE  =   V  =  ἀρετῇ

No passages other than 2nd Peter 1 have explicit sequencing.

Acts 8:26-39  -  Ethiopian Eunuch

26But an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip saying, “Arise and go south to the road that descends from Jerusalem to Gaza.” (This is a desert road.) 27And he arose and went; and behold, there was an Ethiopian eunuch, a court official of Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, who was in charge of all her treasure; and he had come to Jerusalem to worship. 28And he was returning and sitting in his chariot, and was reading the prophet Isaiah. 29And the Spirit said to Philip, “Go up and join this chariot.” 30And when Philip had run up, he heard him reading Isaiah the prophet, and said, “Do you understand what you are reading?” 31And he said, “Well, how could I, unless someone guides me?” And he invited Philip to come up and sit with him. 32Now the passage of Scripture which he was reading was this:







34And the eunuch answered Philip and said, “Please tell me, of whom does the prophet say this? Of himself, or of someone else?” 35And Philip opened his mouth, and beginning from this Scripture he preached Jesus to him. 36And as they went along the road they came to some water; and the eunuch said, “Look! Water! What prevents me from being baptized?” 37[And Philip said, “If you believe with all your heart, you may.” And he answered and said, “I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.”] 38And he ordered the chariot to stop; and they both went down into the water, Philip as well as the eunuch; and he baptized him. 39And when they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord snatched Philip away; and the eunuch saw him no more, but went on his way rejoicing."

F → baptism & rejoicing = V.  Sequencing implied!



KNOWLEDGE  =  K  =  γνῶσις

V - John 7:17

"If anyone is willing to do His will, he will know about the teaching, whether it is of God or I speak from Myself."

('willing' [θέλῃ / desires] implies V) → K [γνώσεται]  Sequencing implied!


S - (general principle) Knowledge → conviction → self-control(S)


S - John 10:14 & 27

14“I am the good shepherd; and I know My own, and My own know Me,"

27“My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me;"

K [γινώσκουσί] Jesus → follow Him (S)  Sequencing implied!


S - Romans 7:7

"What shall we say then? Is the Law sin? May it never be! On the contrary, I would not have come to know sin except through the Law; for I would not have known about coveting if the Law had not said, “YOU SHALL NOT COVET.”

K Law → conviction of sin  (K → S transition)

Sequencing implied!  This supports the model.


S - 1 Cor 8:1-2

"1Now concerning things sacrificed to idols, we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge makes arrogant, but love edifies. 2If anyone supposes that he knows anything, he has not yet known as he ought to know;"

K without conviction (S problem) makes arrogant (G problem)

This 'Could' be a support for sequentiality.  It's unclear.


S - 1 John 2:3-4

"3And by this we know that we have come to know Him, if we keep His commandments. 4The one who says, “I have come to know Him,” and does not keep His commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him;"

K [ἐγνώκαμεν] Him → keep commands (S & L)

Sequencing implied!


G - 1 Tim. 6:3

"If anyone advocates a different doctrine, and does not agree with sound words, those of our Lord Jesus Christ, and with the doctrine conforming to godliness"

Doctrine (K) conforming (leading) to G [εὐσέβειαν]  Sequencing specified!

The NASB's use of 'conforming' for the Greek κατα is commonly translated as 'from the higher to the lower.'  (Thayer, J. H.  (1886), p. 326, l. 56, Right)  Later (p. 327,

l. 4, Right) he notes that, with the Accusative, which this is, 'c. referring to a place', it can mean "C. of direction;  towards."  This is much more compatible with the 2nd Peter understanding.  Additionally, Thayer notes that it can also speak to:  "3. it denotes reference, relation, proportion, of various sorts;"  Specifically, it can describe: "d. of the end aimed at;  the goal to which anything tends;" where Thayer cites this verse as an example of something "tending to Godliness."  (p. 329, l. 24, Left).  If Thayer is correct, then this final interpretation is EXACTLY what the 2nd Peter sequence would expect!


L - Philippians 1:9

"And this I pray, that your love may abound still more and more in real knowledge and all discernment,"

Knowledge [ἐπιγνώσει] is presumed to already exist, Love [ἀγάπη] grows IN it.  (K → L)  Sequencing implied!

This is one of the few places where the more simple knowledge [gnosis] is replaced with the 'higher' knowledge [epignosis].  Whether this changes this argument is unclear.  Kittle (v. 1, p. 707, l. 5) notes that epignosis became a 'technical term' for the Knowledge of God one needed for conversion.  This would still be compatible with sequencing, just with a longer reach (F → L).


L - John 17:26

"and I have made Thy name known to them, and will make it known; that the love wherewith Thou didst love Me may be in them, and I in them.”

will make K [γνωρίσω] → (so) that they may Love (L) [ἀγάπη].

The word translated into English as 'that' is ἵνα.  Thayer (1886, p. 302, l. 483, Right) described it as:  "denoting purpose and end: to the intent that;  to the end that, in order that;"  Assuming Thayer is correct, this verse could be reworded to say that:  ". . . and will make it known; in order that the love wherewith . . ."  This reading would clearly indicate that Sequencing is specified!


L - 1 Cor. 13:2

"And if I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and all knowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing."

F & K “less” than Agape (L).    Lower on sequence?  Haven't attained goal?

This 'Could' be a support for sequentiality.  It's unclear.


L - 1 John 4:7

"Beloved, let us love one another, for love is from God; and everyone who loves is born of God and knows God."

Love (L) IMPLIES the presence of F (born of God) & K (knows God)

Sequencing implied!



SELF-CONTROL  =  S  =  ἐγκρατείᾳ

no verses with explicit sequencing

Heb 5:12-14

"12For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you have need again for someone to teach you the elementary principles of the oracles of God, and you have come to need milk and not solid food. 13For everyone who partakes only of milk is not accustomed to the word of righteousness, for he is a babe. 14But solid food is for the mature, who because of practice have their senses trained to discern good and evil."

Milk = C,     solid food = Y

Y can  'discern good and evil' and is 'accustomed to the word of righteousness'

Discernment clearly springs from K and is applied to lived events and our responses.

The 'word of righteousness' [λόγου δικαιοσύνης] are both Genitive nouns used as Adjectives.  They modify the adjective ἄπειρος / inexperienced.  As such, there is no sequencing implied by the English word 'of'.  It may be speaking of the conviction of the Holy Spirit at the K → S transition.



ENDURANCE  =  E  =  ὑπομονῇ

L - 1 Cor. 13:7

[Love] "bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things."

L Endures (already has E!)  Sequencing implied!



GODLINESS  =  G  =  εὐσεβείᾳ

Y - 1 Tim 6:6

"But godliness actually is a means of great gain, when accompanied by contentment."

G & contentment (successful Y!) → great gain (L?)

This 'Could' be a support for sequentiality.  It's unclear.


Y - 2 Pet 2:7-9

"7and if He rescued righteous Lot, oppressed by the sensual conduct of unprincipled men 8(for by what he saw and heard that righteous man, while living among them, felt his righteous soul tormented day after day with their lawless deeds), 9then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from temptation, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment for the day of judgment,"

Lot (godly = G) oppressed by sensual conduct (implies he has Y already!)

This 'Could' be a support for sequentiality.  It's unclear.


Y - 1 Tim 4:7

"But have nothing to do with worldly fables fit only for old women.  On the other hand, discipline yourself for the purpose of godliness;"

Discipline (Y) self for the purpose of (→) G

Thayer (1886, p. 541, l. 48, Left) describes the Greek word πρὸς which the NASB translates with the phrase 'for the purpose of' as speaking:  "I. with the Accusative, [which this case is] to, towards, Lat. ad, denoting direction towards a thing, or position and state looking towards a thing."  Later (p. 542, l. 3, Right) He more precisely describes it as: "e. of an intended end or purpose".  Thus, this text would read as: 'discipline yourself towards the goal of godliness.'  This interpretation is EXACTLY what the 2nd Peter sequence would expect!


L - 1 Tim 4:8

"for bodily discipline is only of little profit, but godliness is profitable for all things, since it holds promise for the present life and also for the life to come."

G → profits (B? & L?)

This 'Could' be a support for sequentiality.  It's unclear.



BROTHERLY LOVE  =  B  =  φιλαδελφίᾳ

L - 1 Thess 4:9

"Now as to the love of the brethren, you have no need for anyone to write to you, for you yourselves are taught by God to love one another;"

Paul knows they have B (Philadelphia) already BECAUSE they have Agape (L).

NOTE:  Paul could only have made this statement if he was aware of the sequential nature of B → L!

Sequencing implied!



CHRISTIAN LOVE  =  L  =  ἀγάπη

Collateral passages dealing with this stage have been dealt with above





When one considers the number of these instances, one is not surprised.  What is surprising is the strong tendency for the 'earlier' virtues to precede and indicate causality of the 'later' virtues.  This indicates sequentiality.  And not just sequentiality, but sequentially scattered throughout the New Testament.  Multiple different Biblical books with multiple different authors tend to represent these virtues in this order.  IF it were strictly random, one would expect a jumble of sequences to appear.  While a number of these instances do NOT have demonstrable sequentiality, NONE of them specify a sequentiality that differs from Peter's arrangement.  That is just too much to happen by chance.  I hope to find time to apply the Runs Test, a non-parametric statistical measure of significance, to demonstrate this.


Taken together, the sheer number of these instances weighs heavily on the side of indicating agreement with the 2 Peter sequence.  Assuming the existence of a common inspirational Spirit . . . . . . that should not be surprising.


This page revised and Copyrighted: Theon Doxazo

20 May, 2024