Site Home

Endurance

Home

Exegesis Home

Overall Site

Orientation

Exegesis

Theory

Psychology

Assessment

Education

Pathology

Treatment

Projects

Dialogue

Finance

End Notes

This page revised and Copyrighted: Theon Doxazo

23 March, 2024

 

Commentators on Endurance

02.9.1

“. . . and in your self-control, perseverance, . . .”  2 Pet 1:6b.

 

In this section we will review what the various commentators have to say about Endurance, the fifth character quality of the Second Peter sequence.

 

These commentators describe perseverance/hupomonē/ὑπομονή as characterized by:  endurance, patience, and steadfastness.  Sometime endurance is called for when dealing with inner temptations, and sometime when confronted by suffering from external causes.  Extended, grueling work can also try one's endurance.  When in the midst of suffering Hope is sought.  Hope can be found in the deliverance from the temptation that will be found in the last days/heaven.  Hope is also sought during persecution or suffering from external causes, and is found in the promise of Christ's coming and the solace of His Spirit in our lives.  Submission to Christ's Spirit in us produces the endurance needed to persevere.

 

 

Note that my reactions or clarifications to what these commentators have to say are [bracketed] and most are found below each comment, so as to identify them as my reactions and not those of the listed Commentators.

 

 

Commentators on Endurance

 

Abernethy, J.  (1762, PDF p. 170, l. 16 & p. 173, l. 5 & p. 175, l. 4 & p. 179-180, l. 22 & p. 180, l. 17 & p. 181, l. 6 & p. 183, l. 8 & p. 184, l. 7)

"the virtue of patience, or of bearing affliction with equanimity and resignation to the will of God" . . .

"Patience, generally, is understood in so strict a sense as to relate only to afflictions.  That virtue whereby we bear our adversities with a religious equanimity and chearful submission to the will of God;  that calmness, contentment, and all those dutiful affections and becoming behaviour under trials, which he requires: but we will find that the scripture uses it in a larger extent, and applies it to our doing our duty, as well as bearing the cross;  to our expectations of a future distant reward, as well as enduring the calamities which attend our expecting state." . . .

"The body dies and is laid in the grave, it returns to its earth, and according to outward appearance, and the ordinary course of things, seems to be irrecoverably lost.  This mortal must afterwards put on, by the immediate power of God, immortality;  and this corruptible put on incorruption.  These things are not seen, they are only apprehended by faith in the promises of God.  But if they are really believed, one would think the believer should long for them with great earnestness, and that the distance of them should be a great trial of his patience". . . . "Patience, therefore must necessarily accompany our hope,"

"in the entire scheme of providence, tho' we cannot comprehend the work of the Lord, his ways are unsearchable, and his judgments past finding out, yet we reasonably infer from the wisdom and benevolence which he has made manifest, that no event is appointed or permitted without that counsel which conducts all to such issues as are best in the whole.  That affliction, particularly, does not rise out of the dust, as it is expressed in the book of Job, but it is ordered by the infinite wisdom of God with a kind intention to promote the real advantage of all men who are sincerely disposed to make a right improvement of it;  to correct their faults, to bring them to a serious consideration of their ways, to try their virtues, to make them partakers of holiness, to produce in them the peaceable fruits of righteousness, and so to do them good in their latter end." . . .

"whom the Lord loveth, he rebuketh and chasieneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth;  that therefore, we ought not to despise the chasiening of the Lord, nor faint when we are rebuked of him.  That all things shall work together for the good of them that love him; and therefore christians ought to count it all joy when they fall into divers temptations;  and to glory in their tribulations, because they work patience." . . .

"The promise of divine assistance by the Holy Spirit is the support of patience, and the joy of the Holy Ghost seems to have a special relation to a suffering state ;" . . .

"But, when in a suffering state, the soul, having a firm persuasion that God superintends all human affairs, approves and consents to the whole of his administration as wise and good, and thereupon constantly endeavours to suppress all murmuring and angry resentments, and peremptorily refuses to go into any undutiful purpose of heart, or instance of unbecoming behaviour in practice, then patience has her perfect work;" . . .

"In general it is to be observed, that the calmness and serenity of the mind is its health and vigour;  when we are dispassionate and sedate, acting upon cool and serious thoughts with deliberation, then only it is that we enjoy ourselves, and behave as becometh reasonable creatures and christians.  The preserving this temper under affliction is practising the virtue of patience."

 

[Whew!  There's a lot here!  I really like the line 'Patience, therefore must necessarily accompany our hope', though I would reverse the sequence.  The discussion of the one that is impatient for death seems to imply a lot of faith or a really terrible situation.  The stress upon the 'heavenly ordained' nature of (some) sufferings IS Biblical.  Still, it seems a bit of a stretch, for me.  It seems to undercut the extent of human responsibility for sin and degradation.  The Holocaust springs to mind.  Further, the stress upon the 'dispassionate' style of enduring suffering seems to belittle the natural, God-created humanity of emotions.  I'm hesitant to agree with a response to human suffering that advocates suppression of human emotional responses.  That seems a prescription for psychopathology.  I've got to think about all this.]

[Even though he writes in an older style of English, I much prefer reading Abernethy in the primary sources, as opposed to reading him in Excell in the Biblical Illustrator.  I had to remove a boat-load of f's that should be s's from this text.  His original thoughts, and much of his spelling 'uniquenesses' were left intact, however.]

 

 

Alford, H.  (1878, p. 392;  PDF p. 682).

"and in your self-restraint, patient endurance (in afflictions and trials)"

 

[He considers only suffering by external causes.]

 

 

Bagster, S.  (n. d., PDF p. 418).

"ὑπομονή  - PATIENT ENDURANCE,...PATIENT AWAITING,... A PATIENT FRAME OF MIND, PATIENCE,... PERSEVERANCE,... ENDURANCE in adherence to an object,... AN ENDURING of affliction, etc., THE ACT OF SUFFERING, UNDERGOING,..."

 

[No mention of hope.]

 

 

Barbieri, L. A.  (1977, p. 97-98, l. 31).

"This word means to voluntarily and continually endure difficulties and hardships for the sake of honor.  If the believer has cast his anxieties on God (1 Pet 5:7), he will not panic over difficulties and distress.  Patience grows as the Christian believes the promises of God and experiences His power in his life."

 

[The first line sounds like Cicero.  The last line implies hope.]

 

 

Barclay, W.  (1964, p. 143-145).

"It is used of the endurance of toil that has come upon a man all against his will, of endurance of the sting of grief, the shock of battle and the coming of death.  It has one very interesting use – it is used of the ability of a plant to live under hard and unfavorable circumstances.  In later Greek, in the later Jewish literature, it is specially common, for instance in Fourth Maccabees, of that quality of 'spiritual staying power' which enabled men to die for their God. . . . the normal translation of the noun is 'patience', and of the verb 'to endure,' . . . Hupomonē is very commonly used in connection with 'tribulation.' . . . Hupomonē is used in connection with 'hope.'  Tribulation begets 'patience' and patience begets experience and experience begets 'hope'  (Rom 5:3).  It is 'patience' and comfort which produce 'hope' (Rom 15: 4-5).  The 'patience' of the 'hope' of the Thessalonians is praised (1 Thess. 1:3). . . . Oftenest of all Hupomonē is connected with some goal of glory, some greatness which shall be.  . . . It is the spirit which can bear things, not simply with resignation, but with blazing hope.  It is not the spirit which sits statically enduring in the one place, but the spirit which bears things because it knows that these things are leading to a goal of glory;  it is not the patience which grimly waits for the end, but the patience which radiantly hopes for the dawn. . . . It is the virtue which can transmute the hardest trial into glory because beyond the pain it sees the goal."

 

[This emphasis on the 'manly virtue' of Hupomone fits nicely with our take on the character of Arete.  The characterization of 'spiritual staying power' is spot on.  I like the emphasis on Hope.  That, too, is as it needs to be.  I like Barclay and he proved himself once again.]

 

 

Barclay, W.  (2003, p. 349-350, l. 25).

"To this self-control must be added steadfastness.  The word is hupomonē.  The fourth-century Church father John Chrysostom called hupomonē 'The Queen of the Virtues'.  In the Authorized Version, it is usually translated as patience;  but patience is too passive a word.  Hupomonē always has a background of courage.  Cicero defines patientia, its Latin equivalent, as 'the voluntary and daily suffering of hard and difficult things, for the sake of honour and usefulness'.  Didymus of Alexandria, writing in the third century on the attitude of Job, says:  'It is not that the righteous man must be without feeling, although he must patiently bear the things which afflict him;  but it is true virtue when a man deeply feels the things he toils against, but nevertheless despises sorrows for the sake of God.'

 

Hupomonē does not simply accept and endure;  it always has a sense of looking forward.  It is said of Jesus, by the writer of Hebrews, that for the joy that was set before him (sic) he endured the cross, despising the shame (Hebrews 12:2).  That is  hupomonē, Christian steadfastness.  It is the courageous acceptance of everything that life can do to us and the transforming of even the worst event into another step on the upward way."

 

[I like the Didymus quote.  Cicero's 'voluntary and daily' suffering does not include the range of possible sufferings.  Barclay's conclusion is good.]

 

 

Barnes, A.  (1848, PDF p. 22).

"But let patience have her perfect work.  Let it be fairly developed; let it produce its appropriate effects without being hindered.  Let it not be obstructed in its fair influence on the soul by murmurings, complaining or rebellion.  Patience under trials is fitted to produce important effects on the soul, and we are not to hinder them in any manner by a perverse spirit, or by opposition to the will of God.  Every one who is afflicted should desire that the fair effects of affliction should be produced on his mind, or that there should be produced in his soul precisely the results which his trials are adapted to accomplish."

 

[Quoted from Barnes' comments on James 1:4, as referred by his comments on 2 Peter 1:6 (1848, p. 252).]

 

 

Bauer, W.  (1979, p. 846).

"Patience, endurance, fortitude, steadfastness, perseverance . . . esp. as they are shown in the enduring of toil and suffering . . . 2. (patient) expectation"

 

['toil and suffering' would seem to include both inner and outer causes.  Adding 'patient expectation' would seem to aptly describe Christian Hope.]

 

 

Bengel, J. A.  (1873, p. 88;  PDF, p. 628).

"Next in order is ὑπομονή, patience.  Incontinence weakens the mind; continence banishes weakness, and adds strength."

 

[Bald, unsupported statements.  They don't tell us much about Endurance.]

 

 

Bigg, C.  (1902, p. 258;  PDF p. 272, l. 16).

"Continence issues in Patience, which understands that with God a thousand years are as one day (here St. Peter is looking forward to chap. iii.)."

 

[Not much here.]

 

 

Black, M.  (1998, p. 165).

"For the Christian the basis of perseverance was not personal strength but trust and hope in the Lord."

 

[Good!]

 

 

Brown, C.  (1986, Vol 2, p. 764).

"Hypomeno means in the first instance to remain behind, to await.  It acquired then the more active sense of overcoming difficulties:   to  persevere, stand firm, stand one’s ground."

 

[OK]

 

 

Burkitt, W.  (1844B, p. 696;  PDF p. 701).

"And to temperance, patience under all wrongs and sufferings whatsoever;  an impatient man under affliction is like a bedlamite in chains, raving against God and man."

 

[A 'bedlamite' is a person that, today, we would describe as a psychiatric inpatient.]

 

 

Cedar, P. A.  (1984, p. 210).

"Add perseverance to self-control (v. 6).  Both James and Peter write a great deal about the virtue of 'perseverance' (hupomone).  This word means 'enduring, continuance or patience' and comes from the root word hupomeno which can mean 'to bear trials, to have fortitude, to abide or to endure.'  In our vernacular, we would say perseverance means 'hanging in there.'  There are only seconds which separate those who fail from those who succeed in running most races.  Too many people drop out of the race just before it is to be won.  Those who persevere by 'hanging in there' are those who win the prize."

 

[OK.]

 

 

Clarke, A.  (1850, p. 880; PDF p. 888).

"Patience] — Bearing all trials and difficulties with an even mind, enduring in all, and persevering through all."

 

[Adding little more than synonyms.  'Even mind'?  I can guess, but it isn't clear what he means by that term.]

 

 

Cochrane, E. E.  (1965, p. 81-82).

"Patience does not convey the apostle's meaning since we think of this word as the ability to wait and endure without complaint.  The Greek word, HUPOMONE, actually means 'endurance' or 'persistent endurance.'  The English word is too passive while the Greek word always has the background of courage, a voluntary and daily enduring of difficult and hard things for the sake of honor and usefulness.  It is the quality which enables the Christian to convert his blisters into calluses.  In the New Testament patience is used thirty-one times in this sense and only ten times with another meaning. . . . This grace is most clearly an outgrowth of faith for it is in reliance upon God, obedience to His will, trust in His goodness, the results of knowledge in faith, that we are enabled to persevere with steadfastness."

 

[Again we get the quote from Cicero.  (3rd sentence)  The last sentence is a bit of a jumble.]

 

 

Constable, T. L.  (2021, PDF p. 21).

"'Perseverance' is the need to keep on keeping on in spite of adversity.  It is patient endurance in holiness when we encounter temptation to give in or to give up (cf. Rom. 5:3-4; 15:4-5; 2 Cor. 1:6; 6:4; Col. 1:11; 1 Thess. 1:3; 2 Thess. 1:4; James 1:3).  The Greek word (hypomonen) literally means to remain under something, such as a heavy load."

 

[The literal Greek is a nice touch.]

 

 

Cramer, G. H.  (1967, p. 91).

"Control in the midst of circumstances without is provided in the grace of PATIENCE."

 

[Very brief.  Considers only externally-oriented trials.]

 

 

Darby, J. (1820, PDF p. 409-410, l. 23)

"Still, being thus governed, and the will bridled, one bears patiently with others;  and the circumstances that must be passed through are, in all respects, borne according to the will of God, be they what they may.  Still, being thus governed, and the will bridled, one bears patiently with others;  and the circumstances that must be passed through are, in all respects, borne according to the will of God, be they what they may.  We add patience to temperance.  The heart, the spiritual life, is then free to enjoy its true objects—a principle of deep importance in the christian life.  When the flesh is at work in one way or another (even if its action is purely inward), if there is anything whatever that the conscience ought to be exercised about, the soul cannot be in the enjoyment of communion with God in the light, because the effect of the light is then to bring the conscience into exercise.  But when the conscience has nothing that is not already judged in the light, the new man is in action with regard to God, whether in realising (sic) the joy of His presence or in glorifying Him in a life characterised (sic) by godliness.  We enjoy communion with God; we walk with God; we add to patience godliness."

 

[Well, I must be a totally degenerate sinner.  This sounds too 'other worldly' to be real.  There is no struggle or despair here.  It's all too easy.]

 

 

Davids, P. H.  (2011, p. 48).

"in contrast to ἐνκράτεια, ὑπομονή ('patient endurance') was a cardinal Christian virtue . . .".

 

[A simple description.  Was?]

 

 

Deffinbaugh, B.  (3 Jul 2004).

"Perseverance is the frame of mind and character which persists in doing what is right even though doing so may produce difficulties, suffering, and sorrows.  Perseverance is the commitment to suffer in the short term in order to experience glory for eternity."

 

[This tells us what is done, doesn't tell us why or how.]

 

 

Demarest, J. T.  (1865, p. 94).

"And with self-mastery, steadfast endurance: τήν ὑπομονή = a staying under, literally; hence, patience, perseverance, or steadfast endurance.  While attempting to govern yourselves, do not become discouraged, but persevere until you conquer.  Our apostle may also refer to outward calamities, and then the sense is: Tame your passions raging within, and bear up under troubles arising from external circumstances; and this we prefer."

 

[Yes, endurance is two-fold.]

 

 

Gaebelein, A. C.  (1913-1924, p. 103;  PDF p. 107).

"How easy it is to endure reproach, wrongs inflicted by others, sufferings--to endure it all in patience when faith looks to Him Who endured more than we are ever called upon to do."

 

[True, but leaves out a lot.]

 

 

Gifford, O. P.  (1977, p. 31-32;  PDF p. 507-508;  l. 63).

“And to self-control patience”--the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings.  Not only endurance of the inevitable, but the heroic, brave patience, with which a Christian not only bears but contends.  Faith, energy, self-control count for little unless you endure; there are many Galatian Christians, who run well for a time; but the crowns are given to men who complete the race.  Quick response on the part of the soil is no guarantee of a harvest; depth is as needful as willingness."

 

[A skillful argument for patience.  The illustration from Galatia was telling.  The use of the Parable of the Soils was also skillfully done and appropriate.]

 

 

Gill, J.  (1746-48A,  p. 13;  PDF p. 6409).

"and to temperance, patience;  which is necessary to the running of the Christian race, which is attended with many difficulties and exercises;  and under affliction from the hand of God, that there be no murmuring nor repining;  and under reproaches and persecutions from men, that they faint not, and are not discouraged by them;  and in the expectation of the heavenly glory:  this is proper to be superadded to the former, because there may be intemperance in passion, as well as in the use of the creatures;  a man may be inebriated with wrath and anger, and overcome with impatience, as well as with wine and strong drink:"

 

[Yes, life is full of troubles and we must be ready to bear them.  I like his illustration of being 'inebriated with wrath and anger', etc.  There's more than one way to be carried away and intemperate.]

 

 

Green, M.  (1976, p. 69).

"From the habit of self-control springs 'endurance' (AV patience), the temper of mind which is unmoved by difficulty and distress, and which can withstand the two Satanic agencies of opposition from the world without and enticement from the flesh within.  The mature Christian does not give up. . . . There are few more reliable tests of faith than this; true faith endures (cf. Rom. v. 1-3, Mk. xiii. 13). . . . And so it produces in the Christian a deepened awareness of a Father's wise and loving hand controlling all that happens.  Like Jesus Himself, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross (Heb. xii. 2), we are enabled to see our apparent misfortunes in the calm light of eternity.  Mayor points to an interesting passage in Aristotle where self-control and endurance are contrasted.  'Self-control' says Aristotle, 'is concerned with pleasures . . . and endurance with sorrows; for the man who can endure and put up with hardships, he is the real example of endurance.'"

 

[I like the 'mature faith' line.  I believe there is wisdom in the 'deepened awareness' line.  I haven't suffered like that, but it feels right.  Others have testified similarly.  'the calm light of eternity' also feels right.  I dislike Aristotle's quote.  That conception is different than mine.  Both pleasures AND sorrows require self-control and endurance.]

 

 

Hamer, D. J.  (1977, p. 56;  PDF p. 532;  l. 34&42).

"Patience, then, power of endurance, power of perseverance, is a necessary part of Christian character.  Take one or two simple reminders and this will appear clearly enough.  Men are in a condition of suffering in this world.  Account for it as you may, expound the purpose of it as you may, the fact remains. . . . Yet all men have to suffer, and to suffer severely, from minor trials every day; and to meet these some firm, abiding principle regulating the life is needed.  Does it not also suggest itself to you that the position in which Christianity puts a man in relation to God, to himself, men, to things present and things future, is such as to require that he, at all events, of all men should be possessed of this grace of “patience,” this energy of quiet perseverance.  If it be a necessity in every-day life apart from Christianity, it is all the more a necessity to the Christian.  He sees things to which other men are blind; he has burdens laid upon him which other men know nothing of; and he of all men must be specially strengthened to endure."

 

[A rather weak argument, made with lots of embellishment.]

 

 

Hamilton, J.  (1900, PDF p. 90, l. 21).

"If patience be viewed as equanimity, it is near akin to control of temper;  and need I say what a field for patience, understood as submission to the will of God, there is in the trials of life?  The stoic is not patient, for he is past feeling;  and when the pain is not perceived there is no need for patience.  But the Christian is a man of feeling, and usually of feeling more acute than other people;  and it is often with the tear of desolation in his eye or the sweat of anguish on his brow that he clasps his hands and cries, 'Father, Thy will be done !'  But this the believer, through grace, can do, and this some time or other in his history almost every believer has actually done.  And though most have been so human that they were startled at the first beneath the stroke of bodily affliction, amidst the crash of fallen fortunes, at the edge of the closing grave, they have all sooner or later been enabled to exclaim, 'The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away;  blessed be the name of the Lord.'"

 

[Yes, Christians feel their sufferings.  And yes, patience or endurance is near kin to control of temper, otherwise known here as self-control, which preceeds it in the 2 Peter sequence.]

 

 

Henry, M.  (1853, PDF p. 817; TEXT p. 1631-1632).

"Add to temperance, patience;  which must have its perfect work, or we cannot be perfect and entire, wanting nothing, (Jam. 1. 4.) for we are born to trouble, and must through many tribulations enter into the kingdom of heaven;  and it is this tribulation, (Rom. 5. 3.) which worketh patience, that is, requires the exercise and occasions the increase, of this grace;  whereby we bear all calamities and crosses with silence and submission, without murmuring against God, or complaining of him;  but justifying him who lays all affliction upon us, owning that our sufferings are less than our sins deserve, and believing they are no more than we ourselves need."

 

[The last two lines are interesting.]

 

 

Huther, J. E.  (1887, p. 382).

"ὑπομονή is enduring patience in all temptations."

 

[This assumes a very inward/tempting trouble to be endured.]

 

 

Ironside, H. A.  (1947, p. 70).

"... that which enables one to endure without complaining, even though exposed to circumstances that are very distasteful to the natural man."

 

[It seems like a number of commentators are troubled by complaining.  I would think people could complain without losing faith, hope.  At least, I hope so.]

 

 

Irwin, C. H.  (1928, p. 555).

"patience.  Endurance: see note on Heb. xii 1."

 

[Not much here.]

 

 

James, M. R.  (1912, p. 12;  PDF p. 76).

"We may think of it as meaning to the early Christians two things in particular—endurance under persecution, and patient waiting for the Return of the Lord.  Perhaps the latter meaning was the one more present to the writer’s mind: he speaks at length about it in the third chapter."

 

[Reasonable.]

 

 

Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., & Brown, D.  (1880, p. 444-445;  PDF p. 494-495).

"[Bengel] 'And in your self-control patient endurance' amidst sufferings, so much dwelt on in the first epistle, ch. 2, 3, and 4."

 

[A simple description.]

 

 

Jeremiah, D.  (2019, TEXT p. 7, l. 4).

"To persevere means to voluntarily and continually endure difficulties and hardships for the sake of honor."

 

['Continually'?  I hope not.  'Honor'?  I don't know.  I assume the Marines would do the same.  How about for Jesus?]

 

 

Kelly, W.  (1906, p. 52;  PDF p. 63).

"But there is suffering for righteousness, if not for Christ's name, which is never far or long from a Christians' path; and thus he has need of self-control supplying 'endurance'.  He is not to quail if called to suffer ever so wrongfully.  How unworthy, natural as it is, to complain because of this!  Would it be any satisfaction, or real alleviation, if one deserved it?  'For it is better, if the will of God should will it, to suffer as well-doers than as evil-doers.'  'But if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed but glorify God in this name.'  Yes, believers have need of endurance.  Let us then, in 'self-control' that puts a quiet but needed check on ourselves and on every device of self-will, supply 'endurance' under any wrong inflicted by others."

 

[Unlike Huther, above, this  assumes a very outward/persecutorial trouble to be endured.  The comment on 'self-will' is pertinent, especially given the upcoming appearance of Godliness.]

 

 

Kittle, G.  (1964, Vol. 1, p. 41-42, l. 36/7)

"The point at which love between God and the people of God is particularly revealed is that of suffering and especially martyrdom.  'Dear are the chastisements.'  For sufferings are the correction of the man who loves God, and must be understood as loving chastisements (M. Ex. 20:23; bBer. 5b).  Indeed, sufferings are means to earn the good-pleasure of God, atoning for sin and being a pledge of participation in the coming world of God.  Above all, they are the decisive fiery trial of our love for the Law of God and for God Himself." . . . . "Tradition tells us that Akiba was controlled his whole life long by the thought that love with all one's soul as required by the Schema῾ can find its final attestation and fulfilment (sic) only in martyrdom."

 

[Love is revealed in suffering and martyrdom.  Yes.  It would take Enduring suffering and especially martyrdom to demonstrate a deep Love for God.  More importantly, however, is the emphasis on understanding chastisements/suffering as coming from a loving God.  If understood in this way, one could then use this suffering to focus on any lessons that one needed to learn, thus providing meaning to the suffering, and thus making the suffering more endurable.  Suffering as atonement for sin?  This is a Jewish understanding, and I'm less given to that.  There is simply too much mindless suffering in the world to try to understand it as an atonement for sin.  That's what Christ came to do.]

 

 

Kittle, G.  (1964, Vol. 1, p. 42, l. 32)

"Another note is sounded by the Judaistic (sic) expressions for love when it refers to the relationship between man and man.  If love for God finds fulfilment (sic) in suffering, love for fellow-men does so in active and helpful work.  'To exercise love is to do beneficent works.'"

 

[A nice understanding of demonstrating Agape within the brotherhood.]

 

 

Leaney, A. R. C.  (1967, p. 108).

"FORTITUDE in times of adversity was a great ideal of the Stoics but the Greek word used here links the idea with the special Jewish and Christian virtue of endurance under persecution until the promised deliverance by God."

 

[A brief comment with a nice balance.  The contrast between the Hellenistic world and the Biblical world stands up to scrutiny.]

 

 

Lumby, J. R.  (1893, p. 248).

"And in your temperance patience.  This is the true sequence of spiritual self-control.  Life is sure to supply for the godly man trials in abundance.  But he is daily striving to die unto the world.  The effort fixes his mind firmly on the Divine purposes, and lifts him above the circumstances of time.  He is a pilgrim and sojourner amidst them, but is in no bondage to them, nor will he be moved, even by great afflictions, to waver in his trust.  He can look on, as seeing Him that is invisible, and can persevere without being unduly cast down."

 

[A mature point of view.  Oh, that we might all arrive at such a level!  The more often I read this comment, the better I like it.]

 

 

Luther, M.  (1859, PDF p. 249, l. 23).

"Thus would St. Peter say: though ye lead a temperate and discreet life, ye are not to think that ye shall live without conflict and persecution.  For if ye believe, and lead a fair christian (sic) life, the world will not let it alone;  it must persecute and hate you, in which you must show patience, which is a fruit of faith."

 

[Luther sounds right on here.  Note:  I believe that in this older use of the language the term 'fair' does not imply 'just' or 'even handed', but 'beautiful' or 'lovely'.]

 

 

Maclaren, A.  (1905A, p. 54;  PDF p. 530;  l. 22&49).

"It is Christian patience that is here enjoined, not the mere stoical, submitting to the inevitable; not the mere pride of not showing my feeling; not the mere foolish attempt to argue myself into insensibility.  This Christian patience has for its very first element the recognition of the bitterness of the cup that He gives us to drink.  The second element in Christian patience is quietly bearing, with submitted and acquiescent will, the pain or sorrow that comes upon us.  Now, remember where, in our series of Christian graces, this wise endurance of the inevitable and God-sent suffering comes.  It comes after self command.  That teaches us that it will take a great effort of self-control to keep the quivering limb quite still, if undrugged by any false anesthetic, under the gleaming knife. . . . Patience is possible when beneath all the sorrows, be they great or small, we recognize God’s will.  And in another way faith ministers patience by teaching us to understand and recognize the meaning of sorrows. . . . What we have to deal with here is Christian perseverance.  And about that I have only two things to say.  First, how impossible it is to get any wholesome, vigorous Christian life without it; and in the second, how faith likewise ministers to all persistent effort and energy.  As to the first, no course of life which has in view a far off end, towards which all its efforts are to be directed, but runs the risk of wearying ere the end is attained. . . . There is an element of hope in the New Testament conception of patience.  In fact, in some passages the word seems almost to be a synonym for hope, and we read in other places of the patience of hope.  This view of the “patience of hope” suggests to us a thought or two.  The weakness and the misery of all earthly anticipation is that it is full of tumult and agitation.  Hope is not calm, but the very opposite.  As usually entertained it leads to impatience and not to patience.  And the reason why hope is impatient is because we foolishly set our hopes on things that are too near us, and on things that are uncertain. . . If we were only wise enough to fling our hopes far enough forward, and to set them upon that future upon which they may fasten, which is as certain as the past, there would be no need and no possibility of the agitations that perturb all earthly anticipations."

 

[Very good!  He's got a lot of good insight and advice here!  I like his statement about Hope.  This was, apparently, written before the advent of true anesthetics.]

 

 

Macmillan, H.  (1910 PDF, p. 88, l. 3).

"To this self-government we must add patience.  Our self-government itself is to be an exercise of patience.  In our temperance we are to be patient, not giving way to a hasty temper or a restless disposition.  As the plant slowly ripens its fruit, so we are to ripen our Christian character by patient waiting and patient enduring.  It is a quiet virtue this patience, and is apt to be overlooked and underestimated.  But in reality it is one of the most precious of the Christian graces.  The noisy virtues--the ostentatious graces have their day;  patience has eternity.  And while it is the most precious, it is also the most difficult.  It is far easier to work than to wait;  to be active than to be wisely passive.  But it is when we are still that we know God;  when we wait upon God that we renew our strength.  Patience places the soul in the condition in which it is most susceptible to the quickening influences of heaven, and most ready to take advantage of new opportunities."

 

[He's correct about the difficulty of waiting.  I'm less certain about his final sentence.  I'm reminded of the energetic activity of the stage of Virtue.  Also consider the mature Christian at Love that is impelled to help another.  For him to just sit back, wait and do nothing would be inappropriate.  What is needed AT EACH STAGE may vary, will LIKELY vary.  Because people differ during the differing stages of our Christian life, it's hard to make blanket statements.  You'll likely get tripped up somewhere.]

 

 

Manton, T.  (1871,  Vol. 4,  p. 33-34, l. 40).

"From the same, we may observe more particularly, that patience is a grace of an excellent use and value.  We cannot be Christians without it;  we cannot be men without it:  not Christians, for it is not only the ornament, but the conservatory of other graces.  How else should we persist in well-doing when we meet with grievous crosses?  Therefore the apostle Peter biddeth us, 2 Peter i. 5, 6, to 'add to faith, virtue; to virtue, knowledge;  to knowledge, temperance;  to temperance, patience.'  Where are all the requisites of true godliness?  It is grounded in faith, directed by knowledge;  defended, on the right hand, by temperance against the allurements of the world on the left, by patience against the hardships of the world.  You see we cannot be Christians without it;  so, also, not men.  Christ saith, 'In patience possess your souls,' Luke xxi, 19.  A man is a man, and doth enjoy himself and his life by patience:  otherwise we shall but create needless troubles and disquiets to ourselves, and so be, as it were, dispossessed of our own lives and souls — that is, lose the comfort and the quiet of them."

 

[I don't like his restriction of Temperance (Self-Control) to avoiding allurements and Patience (Endurance) to coping with hardships.  This misses the overlaps between them.  His point about avoiding 'needless troubles' is well taken.]

 

 

Mayor, J. B.  (1897, p. 34;  PDF p. 310).

"ὑπομονή  Used (1) for the act of endurance (2 Cor. i. 6, vi. 4), and (2) for the temper of endurance, as here and in the parallel passages Rom. v. 3 and 2 Thess. i. 4.  The verb is found below, ver. 12, Matt. xxiv . . . 13 Rom. xii. 12 . . . (where we find joy, endurance and prayer joined as in the text), Didache xvi. 5 . . . It corresponds generally to the Aristotelian καρτερία (cf. Heb. xi. 27 . . . and to the Latin patientia, thus defined by Cic. Invent. ii. 54. 163 patientia est honestatis aut utilitatis causa rerum arduarum ac difficilium voluntaria ac diutiirna perpessio;  but its distinctively Christian quality is shown in Didymus' comment on Job vi. 5 quoted by Suicer οὐκ ἀναίσθητον εἶναι δει̑ τὸν δίκαιοv κἂν καρτερω̑ς φέρῃ τὰ θλίβοντα αὕτν γὰρ ἀρετή ἐστιν, ὅταν αἴσθησιν τω̑ν ἐπιπόνων δεχόμενός τις ὑπερφρονῇ τω̑ν ἀλγηδόνων διὰ τὸν Θεόν.  Plut. (Cons. ad Apoll. 117) quotes from Eurip. . . . Philo (Cong. Brud. Grat. M. 1. 524), followed by Chrysostom (ap. Suic. s.v.), calls ὑπομονή the queen of virtues, and says it is typified by Rebecca.  Bp. Lightfoot distinguishes it from μακροθυμία (Col. i. 12): see below on v. 7.  Spitta cites Test. Jos. 2 . . . and refers to Jubilees ch. 17 and 18 and the Fourth book of Maccabees as showing that the Jews regarded Abraham as a pattern of faith and endurance tested by trial."  [Emphases in the text.]

 

[OK.  I didn't get half of that]

 

 

Moffatt, J.  (1928A, p. 181-182, PDF p. 193-194, l. 26).

"Life has to encounter trials, however, as well as incitements to self-indulgence, and so stedfastness (sic) is further required in maintaining the Christian hope when it is contradicted (iii. 3 f.), and in adhering to Christian truth when it is denied (i. 16).  This tenacity must be religious;  supply it with piety.  It is not a close-lipped stoical endurance or a dogged determination to hold on, but inspired by a sense of the divine purpose which is running through the trials of life.  Stedfastness (sic) is to be reverent, not defiant.  It acquiesces in God's will, and it also turns kindly to other members of the brotherhood."

 

[Nice touch.  He cites both inner and outer trials!  More about the 'divine purpose', please!]

 

 

Mounce, R. H.  (1982, p. 109).

"The AV's 'patience' is perhaps too passive.  The NEB has 'fortitude,' which brings in the idea of courage.  Perseverance (which Chrysostom called the queen of virtues) is the willingness to accept whatever obstacles are placed in life's path and the courage to make them into stepping-stones.  This virtue was especially important in view of the complaints of some that Christ had not yet returned (see 3:3-4)."

 

[The emphasis on 'courage' seems Hellenistic, and not so much Jewish.  The complaints cited in the last sentence are a direct attack against the Christian Hope for Christ's return.  'He hasn't returned, so why do you still Hope in him?']

 

 

Oberst, B.  (1962, p. 142).

"PATIENCE – hupomone, literally an abiding under or after, hence, to remain behind (when others have departed);  to remain, not to flee.  'Patience' is not a passive virtue, it is a very active one!  It is the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose to serve God, and his loyalty to faith and piety, by even the greatest trials and sufferings.  It is that temper which does not easily succumb under suffering, as opposed to cowardice or despondence.  See 1 Pet. 2:19-20."

 

['unswerved from his deliberate purpose', can you see now why it's helpful to have the boldness, courage, and energy of Virtue/arete in hand before you get to Endurance/hupomonē?  This is a very noble picture of patience.  I suspect the reality is in many cases quite a bit more pedestrian.]

 

 

Oberst, B.  (1988, PDF p. 269).

"The Greek word (hupomone) means literally an abiding under or after, hence to remain behind (when others have departed);  to remain, not to flee.  Again, (as we saw with arete, above), this is not a passive virtue, but a very active one!  It is the characteristic of man or woman who is unswerved from his or her deliberate purpose to serve God.  They 'keep on keeping on' in faithfulness, though others depart.  Their steadfastness continues, even through the greatest trials and sufferings.  It is therefore that temper that does not easily succumb under suffering, as opposed to cowardice, despondency, or giving up.  See 1 Peter 2:19, 20 ('endure').  (Compare Heb. 12:1, 2, where we are exhorted to run the race 'with endurance' (Gr. hupomone) and to take Jesus as our example, for he 'endured' (where we have the verb, hupomeno) the cross and yet emerged victorious.)"

 

[Yes, endurance of sufferings is the key here.]

 

 

Plummer, A.  (1877-1879B, p, 445;  PDF p. 438, l. 14).

"you must endure difficulties patiently, and your patience must not be the stolid defiance of the savage, or the self-reliant and self-satisfied endurance of the Stoic, but a humble and loving trust in God.  Virtue and knowledge are energetic and progressive, they are exercised in developing the powers implanted in us.  Self-control and patience are restrictive and disciplinary;  they are exercised in checking and regulating the conflicting claims of many co-existing powers, so as to reduce all to harmony. . . . Patience to the world is to accept loss and suffering;  to the Christian it is to win the best of prizes  - 'in your patience ye shall win your souls.'"

 

[I dislike his energetic/restrictive characterizations.  All of the virtues are needed and add helpful aspects.  He advocates 'trust in God', that appears in Faith.  Virtue provides the power to accept without being crushed.  Knowledge provides the reason to accept.  Self-Control provides the restraint to allow the acceptance of loss.  Patience allows the loss by looking beyond it.  All the virtues are needed and none are to be belittled.]

 

 

Plumptre, E. H. (1893, p. 167;  PDF p. 174, l. 28).

"Better, ENDURANCE, the Greek noun expressing a more active phase of character than the English, bearing up against evils, and continuing steadfast under them."

 

[Again, just a hint of the Hellenistic approach to Endurance.]

 

 

Powers, D. G.  (2010, p. 185).

"Perseverance (hypomonēn), like faith and love, is found in other NT catalogs of virtue (Rom 5:3-4;  1 Tim 6:11;  2 Tim 3:10;  Titus 2:2;  Rev 2:19).  It refers to 'courageous and steadfast endurance in the face of suffering or evil' (Bauckham 1983, 186).  To show perseverance is to trust in God and to hope for the fulfillment of his promises."

 

[Yes, this is the standard understanding.  It may be that it's not limited to suffering or evil, however.]

 

 

Quell, G. & Stauffer, E.  (1964, p. 41-42).

"The point at which love between God and the people of God is particularly revealed is that of suffering and especially martyrdom.  'Dear are the chastisements.'  For sufferings are the correction of the man who loves God, and must be understood as loving chastisements (M. Ex. 20:23; bBer. 5b).  Indeed, sufferings are means to earn the good-pleasure of God, atoning for sin and being a pledge of participation in the coming world of God.  Above all, they are the decisive fiery trial of our love for the Law of God and for God Himself." . . . . "Another note is sounded by the Judaistic expressions for love when it refers to the relationship between man and man.  If love for God finds fulfilment (sic) in suffering, love for fellow-men does so in active and helpful work.  'To exercise love is to do beneficient works.'"

 

[This is a 'hard' teaching, but it sounds correct.]

 

 

Senior, D.  (1980, p. 111).

"'steadfastness' or perseverance may also be included because of the problems taken up later in the epistle, namely impatience with the coming of the parousia (ch. chapter 3)."

 

[This comment, of course, assumes that there is no underlying reasoning for the 2 Peter sequence and that the 'virtues' listed in 5-7 are a 'grab-bag', which several modern commentators hold, and I do not.]

 

 

Sherlock, J.  (1905, p. 29;  PDF p. 505;  l. 59).

"But, then, to 'temperance' we are to add 'patience.'  Even when you regulate yourselves most, and have your spirits under the directing influences of the Spirit of God, you cannot possibly live and act for Christ without finding some difficulties.  'But,' says the apostle, 'just quietly endure all things;  just patiently persevere in all that concerns your Christian course.'"

 

[Yes, we are humans born to trouble.]

 

 

Simeon, C.  (1844, p. 296;  PDF p. 304).

“Patience” is another grace which must be added to all the former.  And this too, like all the former, must be understood in somewhat of a larger sense, not merely as a meek submission to trials, but as a persevering effort to fulfil (sic) all the will of God.  We are told, that “we have need of patience, that, after we have done the will of God, we may obtain the promise [Note: Hebrews 10:36]:” and it is only “by a patient continuance in well-doing, that we ever can obtain glory, and honour, and immortality [Note: Romans 2:7].”  This grace then must be added to all the rest.  We must never be weary, either in doing, or in suffering, the will of God: but, as the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain;  so must we “be patient, and establish our hearts, till the Lord himself shall come,” to crown, and to reward our labours [Note: James 5:7-8]."

 

[I like his characterization of:  "a persevering effort to fulfil all the will of God".  Would that all causes for the need of Endurance were as lofty.  His scriptural quotes add to his characterization of and call to Endurance.]

 

 

Sumner, J. B.  (1840, p. 235).

"And to temperance, add patience; a resolute endurance of those difficulties which beset the christian life, and of the sorrows and trials with which God often sees fit to prove his children.  Be always ready to say, "Not my will, but thine be done."  "Stablish (sic) your hearts," and "possess your souls in patience;" for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh."

 

[Yes, his calls to spiritual commitment are proper.  However, he hasn't told us much about patience that we didn't already know.]

 

 

Thayer, J. H.  (1886, p. 644).

"1. steadfastness, constancy, endurance, . . . in the N.T. the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings:. . . . 2. a patient, steadfast waiting for; . . . 3. a patient enduring, sustaining."

 

[OK]

 

 

 Thompson, J. P. (1859, p. 87-89 & 94-95).

"It has been assumed in this discussion that since all sin concentrates in a selfish will, this of course must be subdued in order to a sound and perfect self-control.  But I wish to insist upon the idea that selfishness is not merely to be restrained, held in check by compromises, but to be conquered, if ever the soul would gain the mastery of itself for God." [p. 87] . . . . "How shall it be attained?  1. Not by mere force of will, determining to override, and if possible to annihilate the sensibilities and propensities of our nature, whether for good or evil.  The cold impassiveness of marble is not self-control, nor can the Christian perfect his moral nature by cutting away all natural emotions and sympathies" [88] . . . "One may conquer many an appetite and passion by mere force of will, and in so doing may strengthen the will itself in resistance to God, and may stiffen that will with the pride of self-righteousness." [89] . . . . "the power of self-control will be strengthened, if we cherish habitually the sense of God’s presence and of His watchful eye." [94] . . . "And not only the thought of God as ever nigh to us, but the presence of God by His spirit within us, must be cherished if we would govern ourselves by His law." [95]

 

[Thompson opens with an intriguing statement:  'Abstinence alone does not fully express the idea, since this presents rather its negative side.'  Yes, self-control is also needed in situations in which we need to 'push' ourselves into honorable but undesired action.  He seems to imply this situation, but then does nothing with it.  Later he states that 'selfishness' must be conquered.  Amen!  He even mentions the technique publicized by Brother Lawrence (The Practice of the Presence of God) as a treatment.  Very Good, though I was hoping for more along this line.]

 

 

Thompson, J. P.  (1859,  PDF Footnote p. 111 , l. 17).

"The literal meaning of ὐπομονή (hupomone) is remaining behind, or remaining in the house; i.e., abiding--das zuruckbleiben, zuhausebleiben (Passow).  Hence constancy, stability, steadiness.  “Our days on the earth are as a shadow, and there is none abiding” (1 Chronicles 29:15).  The Septuagint here uses ὑπομονη to denote stability, the opposite of that which is transitory and fleeting.  In the text De Wette renders ὑπομονη by Standhaftigkeit, steadfastness.  It is something more than submissiveness, by which Isaac Taylor defines it.  Patientia denotes the quality of bearing or enduring.  Cicero applies it to the endurance of hunger and cold."

 

Thompson, J. P.  (1859,  PDF p. 105 & 111 & 114-117).

"In analysing (sic) patience into its elements we must view it both upon the negative and the positive side.   Patience does not imply a want of sensibility to suffering, sorrow, or wrong." [105] . . . . "We may not seek for patience in an insensibility to suffering, whether natural or forced, nor in a sullen disregard of personal consequences in carrying out some proposed end or meeting an imagined fate." [111] . . . . "He who professes not to be troubled about events because he does not care what happens is not an example of the patient man.  The true patient man does care what happens;" [114] . . . Neither is a do-nothing spirit to be identified with patience. There are times when patience counsels to inaction, when “the strength of Israel is to sit still;” [114] . . . "But this patience of waiting is not the inaction of sluggishness nor of despondency.  It is a watchful inaction, like-that of men sleeping upon their arms, with their camp-fires always lighted and the sentinels at their posts." [115] . . . "patience requires--1. The consciousness of a right intent.  This removes from within all disturbing causes which might irritate and unsettle the mind, and enables us to commit our way to the Lord in confidence."[ 116] . . . "We shall grow patient under trials in proportion as we grow unselfish.” [117] [underlining mine.]

 

 Thompson, J. P. (1859, p. 118-120 & 128-129).

“And so too of labours;  if we enter upon these with a pure intent, if we rise above all selfish feeling to the grandeur of working for mankind and for God, then shall we hold on by the attraction of the work itself, never ruffled by opposition nor disheartened by difficulty.  Hence the exercise of a true Christian Patience demands a conscience void of offense towards man and God." [117] . . . "2. The exercise of Christian Patience demands implicit confidence in God and in our cause as approved by Him." [118] . . . "The main element in patience is Christian submission to the will of God."  This rests upon confidence as its basis - confidence in the wisdom, the power, and the love of God.  To be patient, we must believe that Goid always intends some good in the evil which he brings or suffers to come upon us." [118-119] . . . "3. Patience must have in it the element of hope.  'If we hope for that we see not, then do we with Patience wait for it.'  Patience is incompatible with despair." [119] . . . "Patience in sickness may not depend upon the specific hope of recovery, but it does involve the hope of relief and deliverance in God's own time and way.  Patience under trial expects God’s appearing.  Patience in labour awaits God’s help." [119-120] . . . "We need this patience under the afflictions and wrongs which we personally suffer;  afflictions at the hand of God, persecution, calumny, wrong from our fellow-men." [128 . . . "But it is easier to bear great and prolonged afflictions which come directly and visibly from the hand of God than the petty vexations and wrongs which arise from untoward circumstances and evil men." [129] . . . "Great occasions rally great principles and brace the mind to a lofty bearing, a bearing that is even above itself." [129]

 

[There's much wisdom here.  Very good.  Watch out for selfishness and actively seek submission to Him.  The quotes were originally taken from Excell.  He had a terrible habit of cutting up the original and leaving out a lot to shrink the text.  Reading him in the original is much to be preferred!]

 

 

Tuck, R.  (1896, p. 176).

"Christian patience is waiting but it is much more than waiting;  it is endurance, which means a waiting that involves strain and trial.  It is bearing a burden while you wait.  It is that spirit which is only attained when life is apprehended as a sphere of moral discipline, the methods of which cannot now be fully understood, but the issues of which are absolutely assured, and the conduct of which is wholly in all-wise and all-loving hands."

 

[Good characterization of the inner struggles of patience.  That longish sentence about the 'sphere of moral discipline': that tells us a lot about the struggle to understand and the clarity needed about the issues involved.  There's a lot packed into that sentence.]

 

 

Vincent, M. R.  (1886, p. 679-680;  PDF p. 710-711).

"Lit., remaining behind or staying, from μενω, to wait.  Not merely endurance of the inevitable, for Christ could have relieved himself of his sufferings (Heb .xii. 2, 3;  compare Matt. xxvi. 53); but the heroic, brave patience with which a Christian not only bears but contends.  Speaking of Christ's patience, Barrow remarks, 'Neither was it out of a stupid insensibility or stubborn resolution that he did thus behave himself;  for he had a most vigorous sense of all those grievances, and a strong (natural) aversation (sic) from undergoing them; . . . but from a perfect submission to the divine will, and entire command over his passions, an excessive charity toward mankind, this patient and meek behavior did spring.' The same writer defines patience as follows: 'That virtue which qualifieth us to bear all conditions and all events, by God's disposal incident to us, with such apprehensions and persuasions of mind, such dispositions and affections of heart, such external deportment and practices of life as God requireth and good reason directeth.'"

 

[So much of this is a quote from Barrow.  Frankly I like what Barrow says more than Vincent's comments.  He's got a touch of the Hellenistic flavor there.]

 

 

Wheaton, D. H.  (1994, p. 1390).

"Perseverance is the ability to hold fast to one's goal in spite of opposition or even persecution (cf. The use of the same root in Heb. 12:1-3, where it is translated 'perseverance' and 'endured')."

 

[True, true.  Now, expand on that.]

 

 

Williams, W. R.  (1905, p. 55-56;  PDF p. 531-532;  l. 3&11&31&55&3).

"How it is and why it is that the disciples of temperance or self-restraint are immediately commended to the cultivation of a gentle and forbearing spirit, will, as we think, appear if we but advert to the petulance which all rigorous and abstinent self-control is apt to foster. . . .The ascetic, of all times and of all forms of faith, has been subject, and not without some plausibility, to the imputation of sourness.  What Christian patience is not.  1. The patience of the disciple of Jesus is not stoical apathy, nor acquired or affected obduracy to all physical suffering.  2. Nor, much less, is Christian patience a meek indifference to all error and wickedness in the world around us.  The standard of Christian piety adopted by some, which is all softness and repose, would have no room for men like the lion-hearted Knox who did, under God, so thorough and good a work before a licentious court, and a frowning nobility, and a raging priesthood, for the Scottish nation.  Patience shines forth in such a spirit at such a time triumphant.  It is the patience that dares brave all anger, and loss, and suffering; but that dares not sacrifice truth or duty, or make the fear of God to bend to the fear of man.  What then is Christian patience?   We understand by it “a calm endurance of evil for God’s sake.”  Now, evil is both physical and moral.  Physical evil includes pain, want, disease, and death; moral, errors, sorrows of soul, and wickedness in all its varying shades, and in all its hideous shapes.  Taken in this largest sense, patience includes the grace of meekness, from which, however, in other portions of Scripture, it is distinguished.  Meekness is the quiet endurance of wrong from man, and patience is the endurance of woe appointed of God. . . . That it is endured, implies that the evil is not self-invented and self-inflicted.  If the physical evil be the effect of our own utter neglect, the passive endurance of it is not sufficient to make the sufferer a patient Christian in the truest sense of those terms.  Against moral evil it must bear patiently its bold protest; but the want of immediate effect to that protest, and the presence of that evil in the world, and its temporary triumph, must not shake the Christian’s patient reliance on the wisdom and justice of the Divine Providence.  For Christian patience is essentially hopeful.  It must quietly wait for the salvation of God. . . . The believer in Scripture who would feed, from its full pages, his faith and knowledge and piety into richer development and greater vigour, must be patient in searching, patient in pondering and comparing, and patient in praying over those sacred lines. . . . Let us now consider the motives that should persuade us to be patient as Christians.  For as patience includes meekness under wrongs of our fellow-men, we must forgive or we may not hope ourselves before God to be forgiven.  As patience includes submission to the Divine appointments, let us remark that our trials are lessened by serene meekness and resignation.  God lightens and removes them more early, and they do not so deeply wound and empoison the soul.  We are to remember, too, the necessity of this grace to success and influence with our fellow-men.  It is the patient perseverance in well-doing that builds up consistency, and influence, and weight of character.  We are, again, all to remember our own unworthiness before God, and our liability to pay ten thousand talents, ere, in our fretfulness, we chide man harshly, or murmur bitterly against our God and His providence.  Nor is it unfitting that we remember how much of mercy and kindness there is in God’s allotments."

 

[Lots of good stuff here.  Read it again and ponder.]

 

 

Wuest, K. S.  (1973a, p. 24, l. 20).

"The word is HUPOMONE, literally, 'to remain under,' thus, 'to remain under trials and testings in a way that honors God.'  Vincent translates, 'remaining behind or staying.'  He says further, 'not merely endurance of the inevitable, for Christ could have relieved himself of His sufferings ...; but the heroic, brave patience with which a Christian not only bears but contends.'"

 

[He's an 'under' sort of guy, but he notes Vincent, a 'behind' writer.  The last line has a flavor of the Hellenistic usage.]

 

 

Zerr, E.M.  (1952, PDF p. 269;  Online p. 5).

"Patience.  The leading idea of this word may be stated by the words "constancy" and "endurance."  The first term denotes a steadiness of one's activities for the Lord and the second means that he will continue it to the end.  "Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life" (Revelation 2:10).

 

[His second definition, 'continue', seems lacking.  It should include something about the struggle/opposition to be overcome.]