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End Notes

This page revised and Copyrighted: Theon Doxazo

14 December, 2023


Vine on Endurance


The edition that I will be using is the 1940, non-copyrighted version in PDF format.  All page references will refer to the PDF page number as displayed on Adobe Acrobat Reader.  The PDF text itself has no page numbers.  Pages 1-467 in the PDF is OT Hebrew.  Pages 468-1602 is the NT Greek.



Vine, W. E.  (1940;  PDF p. 1220).



A. Nouns.

1. hupomone (ὑπομονή, 5281). lit., an abiding under (hupo, 'under', meno, 'to abide'), is almost invariably rendered 'patience.'  Patience, which grows only in trial, Jas. 1:3, may be passive, i.e., = endurance, as, (a) in trials, generally, Luke 21:19 (which is to be understood by Matt. 24:13), cf. Rom. 12:12;  Jas. 1:12;  (b) in trials incident to service in the gospel, 2 Cor. 6:4;  12:12;  2 Tim. 3:10;  (c) under chastisement, which is trial viewed as coming from the hand of God our Father, Heb. 12:7;  (d) under undeserved affliction, 1 Pet. 2:20;  or active, i.e. = persistence, perseverance, as (e) in well doing, Rom. 2:7 (A.V., 'patient continuance');  (f) in fruit bearing, Luke 8:15;  (g) in running the appointed race, Heb. 12:1.  [Underlining mine]


Patience perfects Christian character, Jas. 1:4, and fellowship in the patience of Christ is therefore the condition upon which believers are to be admitted to reign with Him,  2 Tim. 2:12;  Rev. 1:9.  For this patience believers are 'strengthened with all power,' Col. 1:11, 'through His Spirit in the inward man,' Eph. 3:16.   ['The condition', too strong.  A condition, OK.][Underlines mine]


In 2 Thess. 3:5, the phrase ‘the patience of Christ,’ RV, is possible of three interpretations, (a) the patient waiting for Christ, so KJV paraphrases the words, (b) that they might be patient in their sufferings as Christ was in His, see Heb. 12:2, (c) that since Christ is ‘expecting till His enemies be made the footstool of His feet,’ Heb. 10:13, so they might be patient also in their hopes of His triumph and their deliverance.  While a too rigid exegesis is to be avoided it may, perhaps, be permissible to paraphrase:  ‘the Lord teach and enable you to love as God loves, and to be patient as Christ is patient.’


In Rev. 3:10, “the word of My patience” is the word which tells of Christ’s patience, and its effects in producing “patience” on the part of those who are His (see above on 2 Thess. 3:5).


2. makrothumia (μακροθυμία, 3115), “longsuffering” (see B, No. 2), is rendered “patience” in Heb. 6:12;  Jas. 5:10;  see LONGSUFFERING.


B. Verbs.

1. hupomeno (ὑπομένω, 5278), akin to A, No. 1, (a) used intransitively, means “to tarry behind, still abide,” Luke 2:43;  Acts 17:14;  (b) transitively, “to wait for,” Rom. 8:24 (in some mss.), “to bear patiently, endure,” translated “patient” (present participle) in Rom. 12:12;  “ye take it patiently,” 1 Pet. 2:20 (twice).  See also under A, No. 1.


2. makrothumeo (μακροθυμέω, 3114), akin to A, No. 2, “to be long-tempered,” is translated “to have patience,” or “to be patient,” in Matt. 18:26, 29;  1 Thess. 5:14, KJV (RV, “be longsuffering”);  Jas. 5:7 (1st part, “be patient”; 2nd part, RV, “being patient,” KJV, “hath long patience”);  in Heb. 6:15, RV, “having (KJV, after he had) patiently endured.”  See LONGSUFFERING.


C. Adjectives.

Notes:  (1) For epieikes, translated “patient” in 1 Tim. 3:3, KJV, see GENTLE.  (2) For anexikakos, translated “patient” in 2 Tim. 2:24, KJV, see FORBEAR.


D. Adverb.

makrothumos (μακροθυμώς, 3116), akin to A, No. 2, and B, No. 2, denotes “patiently,” Acts 26:3.



Vine, W. E.  (1940;  PDF p. 1082).



A. Noun.

makrothumia (μακροθυμία, 3115),  forbearance, patience, longsuffering (makros, long, thumos, temper), is usually rendered 'longsuffering,' Rom. 2:4;  9:22;  2 Cor. 6:6;  Gal. 5:22;  Eph. 4:2;  Col. 1:11;  3:12;  1 Tim. 1:16;  2 Tim. 3:10;  4:2;  1 Pet. 3:20;  2 Pet. 3:15;  “patience” in Heb. 6:12 and Jas. 5:10.  See PATIENCE, and Note under FORBEAR.


B. Verb.

makrothumeo (μακροθυμέω, 3114), akin to A, to be patient, longsuffering, to bear with, lit., to be long tempered, is rendered by the verb to be longsuffering" in Luke 18:7,  RV (KJV, “bear long”);  in 1 Thess. 5:14, RV (KJV, “be patient”);  so in Jas. 5:7, 8; in 2 Pet. 3:9, KJV and RV, “is longsuffering.”  See BEAR, No. 14, ENDURE, PATIENT, SUFFER.


Note:  'Longsuffering is that quality of self-restraint in the face of provocation which does not hastily retaliate or promptly punish;  it is the opposite of anger, and is associated with mercy, and is used of God, Ex. 34:6 (Sept.);  Rom. 2:4;  1 Pet. 3:20.  Patience is the quality that does not surrender to circumstances or succumb under trial;  it is the opposite of despondency and is associated with hope, 1 Thess. 1:3;  it is not used of God.'  [underlining mine.]



My Response to Vine - Endurance


The commentators cited describe perseverance/hupomone/ὑπομονή as characterized by:  endurance, patience, and steadfastness.  Sometime endurance is called for when dealing with inner temptations, and sometime when confronted by suffering from external causes.  At times endurance is called for when under chastisement, which is trial viewed as coming from the hand of God.  Extended, grueling work can also try one's endurance.


When in the midst of suffering, Hope is sought.  Hope can be found in the deliverance from temptation which will be found in the last days/heaven.  Hope is also sought during persecution or suffering from external causes, and is found in the promise of Christ's coming and the current solace of His Spirit in our lives.  Submission to Christ's Spirit in us produces the endurance needed to persevere.


Vine describes the verb hupomeno (ὑπομένω): "to abide under, to bear up courageously (under suffering)".  The noun hupomone (ὑπομονὴ) would have it "lit., a remaining under".  This is a very popular option for understanding this term.


One use of this term appeared when discussing a type of torture used in that day.  If an enemy soldier was captured and the officer wanted him to speak about the enemy, the captured soldier was placed on his back and bricks were piled on his chest.  If he refused to talk, and as a result he was crushed by the weight of the bricks, he was said to have 'remained under' the pressure.


On the other hand, there seems to be some disagreement as to whether the origin of the term should emphasize being 'under' or 'remaining behind'.  Hauck, writing for Kittel, comes down on the 'remaining behind' side.  The key here is that one tarries behind and does not flee with others, but one continues to face the problem.


The key to understanding Endurance/hupomone  is that one does not try to flee whatever problem presents itself, but one 'tarries behind' to face it, or 'remains under' the pressure it exerts.   This virtue describes one as bearing patiently whatever trouble appears.