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End Notes

This page revised and Copyrighted: Theon Doxazo

14 December, 2023


Vine on Knowledge


The edition that I will be using is the 1940, non-copyrighted version in PDF format.  All page references will refer to the PDF page number as displayed on Adobe Acrobat Reader.  The PDF text itself has no page numbers.  Pages 1-467 in the PDF is OT Hebrew.  Pages 468-1602 is the NT Greek.



Vine, W. E.  (1940;  PDF p. 1033-1037).



A. Verbs

1. ginosko (γινώσκω, 1097) signifies to be taking in knowledge, to come to know, recognize, understand, or to understand completely, e.g., Mark 13:28, 29;  John 13:12;  15:18;  21:17;  2 Cor. 8:9;  Heb. 10:34;  1 John 2:5;  4:2, 6 (twice), 7, 13;  5:2, 20;  in its past tenses it frequently means to know in the sense of realising (sic), the aorist or point tense usually indicating definiteness, Matt. 13:11;  Mark 7:24;  John 7:26;  in 10:38 'that ye may know (aorist tense) and understand, (present tense);'  19:4;  Acts 1:7;  17:19;  Rom. 1:21;  1 Cor. 2:11 (2nd part), 14; 2 Cor. 2:4;  Eph. 3:19;  6:22;  Phil. 2:19;  3:10;  1 Thess. 3:5; 2 Tim. 2:19;  Jas. 2:20;  1 John 2:13 (twice), 14;  3:6;  4:8;  2 John 1;  Rev. 2:24; 3:3, 9.  In the Passive Voice, it often signifies to become known, e.g., Matt. 10:26;  Phil. 4:5.  In the sense of complete and absolute understanding on God's part, it is used, e.g., in Luke 16:15;  John10:15 (of the Son as well as the Father);  1 Cor. 3:20.  In Luke 12:46, A.V., it is rendered 'he is . . . aware.'


In the N.T. ginosko frequently indicates a relation between the person knowing and the object known;  in this respect, what is known is of value or importance to the one who knows, and hence the establishment of the relationship, e.g., especially of God's knowledge, 1 Cor. 8:3, 'if any man love God, the same is known of Him;'  Gal. 4:9,' to be known of God;  here the knowing suggests approval and bears the meaning 'to be approved;' so in 2 Tim. 2:19;  cp. John 10:14, 27;  Gen. 18:19;  Nahum 1:7;  the relationship implied may involve remedial chastisement, Amos 3:2.  The same idea of appreciation as well as knowledge underlies several statements concerning the knowledge of God and His truth on the part of believers,  e.g., John 8:32;  14:20, 31;  17:3;  Gal. 4:9 (1st part);  1 John 2:3, 13, 14;  4:6, 8, 16; 5:20;  such knowledge is obtained, not by mere intellectual activity, but by operation of the Holy Spirit consequent upon acceptance of Christ.  Nor is such knowledge marked by finality;  see, e.g., 2 Pet. 3:18;  Hos. 6:3, R.V.


The verb is also used to convey the thought of connection or union, as between man and woman, Matt. 1:25;  Luke 1:34.


2. oida (οῖδα, 1492), from the same root as eidon, to see, is a perfect tense with a present meaning, signifying, primarily, to have seen or perceived;  hence, to know, to have knowledge of, whether absolutely, as in Divine knowledge e.g., Matt. 6:8, 32; John 6:6, 64;  8:14;  11:42;  13:11;  18:4;  2 Cor. 11:31;  2 Pet. 2:9;  Rev. 2:2, 9, 13, 19;  3:1, 8, 15;  or in the case of human knowledge, to know from observation, e.g., 1 Thess. 1:4, 5;  2:1;  2 Thess. 3:7.


The differences between ginosko (No. 1) and oida demand consideration: (a) ginosko, frequently suggests inception or progress in knowledge, while oida suggests fulness (sic) of knowledge e.g., John 8:55, 'ye have not known Him' (ginosko), i.e., begun to know, 'but I know Him' (oida), i.e., 'know Him perfectly;' 13:7, 'What I do thou knowest (sic) not now,' i.e. Peter did not yet perceive (oida) its significance, 'but thou shalt understand,' i.e., 'get to know (ginosko), hereafter;'  14: 7, 'If ye had known Me' (ginosko), i.e., 'had definitely come to know Me,' 'ye would have known My Father also' (oida), i.e., 'would have had perception of:' 'from henceforth ye know Him' (ginosko), i.e., having unconsciously been coming to the Father, as the One who was in Him, they would now consciously be in the constant and progressive experience of knowing Him;  in Mark 4:13, 'Know ye not (oida) this parable?  and how shall ye know (ginosko) all the parables?'  (R.V.), i.e., 'Do ye not understand this parable?  How shall ye come to perceive all . . . 'the intimation being that the first parable is a leading and testing one;  (b) while ginosko frequently implies an active relation between the one who knows and the person or thing known (see No. 1, above), oida expresses the fact that the object has simply come within the scope of the knower's perception;  thus in Matt. 7:23 'I never knew you' (ginosko) suggests 'I have never been in approving connection with you,' whereas in 25:12, 'I know you not' (oida) suggests 'you stand in no relation to Me.'


3. epignosko (ἐπίγινώσκω, 1921) denotes (a) to observe, fully perceive, notice attentively, discern, recognize (epi, upon, and No. 1);  it suggests generally a directive, a more special, recognition of the object known than does No. 1;  it also may suggest advanced knowledge or special appreciation;  thus, in Rom. 1:32, 'knowing the ordinance of God' (epignosko) means 'knowing full well,' whereas in verse 21 'knowing God' (ginosko) simply suggests that they could not avoid the perception.  Sometimes epignosko implies a special participation in the object known, and gives greater weight to what is stated;  thus in John 8:32, 'ye shall know the truth,' ginosko is used, whereas in 1 Tim. 4:3, 'them that believe and know the truth,' epignosko lays stress on participation in the truth.  Cf. the stronger statement in Col. 1:6 (epignosko) with that in 2 Cor. 8:9 (ginosko), and the two verbs in 1 Cor. 13:12, 'now I know in part (ginosko);  but then shall I know (epignosko) even as also I have been known (epignosko),' a knowledge 'which perfectly unites the subject with the object;'  (b) to discover, ascertain, determine, e.g., Luke 7:37;  23:7;  Acts 9:30;  19:34;   22:29;  28:1;  in 24:11 the best mss. have this verb instead of No. 1;  hence the R.V., 'take knowledge.'  J Armitage Robinson (on Ephesians) points out that epignosis is 'knowledge directed towards a particular object, perceiving, discerning,' whereas gnosis is knowledge in the abstract.  See ACKNOWLEDGE.


4. proginosko (προγινώσκω, 4267), to know beforehand, is used  (a) of the Divine foreknowledge concerning believers, Rom. 8:29; Israel, 2:2;  Christ as the Lamb of God, 1 Pet. 1:20, R.V., 'foreknown' (A., 'foreordained');  (b) of human previous knowledge, of a person, Acts 26:5, R.V., 'having knowledge of' (A.V., 'which knew');  of facts, 2 Pet. 3:17.  See FOREKNOW


5. epistamai (ἐπίσταμαι, 1987), to know, know of, understand (probably an old Middle Voice form of ephistemi, to set over), is used in Mark 14:68, 'understand,' which follows oida 'I (neither) know;' most frequently in the Acts, 10:28;  15:7;  18:25;  19:15, 25;  20:18;  22:19;  24:10;  26:26;  elsewhere, 1 Tim. 6:4;  Heb. 11:8;  Jas. 4:14;  Jude 10.  See UNDERSTAND.


6. sunoida (σύνοιδα, 4923), sun, with, and No. 2, a perfect tense with a, present meaning, denotes (a) to share the knowledge of, be privy to, Acts 5:2;  (b) to be conscious of, especially of guilty consciousness, 1 Cor. 4:4, 'I know nothing against (A.V., by) myself.'  The verb is connected with suneidon, found in Acts 12:12;  14:6 (in the best texts).  See CONSIDER, PRIVY, WARE.


7. agnoeo (ἀγνοέω, 50), not to know, to be ignorant;  See IGNORANT.


8. gnorizo (γνωρίζω, 1107) signifies  (a) to come to know, discover, know, Phil. 1:22, 'I wot (not),' i.e., 'I know not,' 'I have not come to know' (the R.V., marg. renders it, as under (b), 'I do not make known');  (b) to make known, whether (1) communicating things before unknown Luke 2:15, 17;  in the latter some mss. have the verb diagnorizo (hence the A.V 'made known abroad);' John 15:15, 'I have made known;'  17:26; Acts 2:28; 7:13 (1st part), see Note (3) below;  Rom. 9:22, 23; 16:26 (Passive Voice); 2 Cor. 8:1, 'we make known (to you),' R.V., A.V., 'we do (you) to wit;' Eph. 1:9; 3:3, 5:10 (all three in the Passive Voice);  6:19, 21;  Col. 1:27; 4:7, 9, 'shall make known' (A.V., 'shall declare');  2 Pet. 1:16;  or (II) reasserting things already known, 1 Cor. 12:3, 'I give (you) to understand' (the Apostle reaffirms what they knew);  15:1, of the Gospel;  Gal. 1:11 (he reminds them of what they well know, the ground of his claim to Apostleship);  Phil. 4:6 (Passive Voice), of requests to God.  See CERTIFY, DECLARE (Note), UNDERSTAND, WIT, WOT.


Notes:  (1) In 2 Tim. 3:10, A.V., parakoloutheo, to follow closely, follow as a standard of conduct, is translated 'hast fully known' (R.V., 'didst follow').  See FOLLOW.  (2) In 2 Tim. 4:17, A.V., plerophoreo, to fulfil (sic), accomplish, is translated 'might be fully known' (R.V., 'might be fully proclaimed').  See FULFIL (sic).  (3) In Acts 7:13, some mss. have the verb anagnorizo, to make oneself known, 'was made known,' instead of No. 8 (which see).  (4) In Acts 7:13 (2nd part) the A.V., 'was made known' translates the phrase phaneros ginomai, to become manifest (R.V., 'became manifest').  See MANIFEST.  (5) For diagnorizo, to make known, in Luke 2:17, see No. 8. (6).  For diaginosko, in Acts 24:22, 'I will know the uttermost of,' see DETERMINE, No. 5.


B. Adjectives.

1. gnostos (γνῶστός, 1110). a later form of gnotos (from No. 1), most frequently denotes 'known;' it is used ten times in the Acts, always with that meaning (save in 4:16, where it means 'notable');  twice in the Gospel of John, 18:15, 16;  in Luke 2:44 and 23:49 it denotes 'acquaintance;'   elsewhere only in Rom. 1:19,   '(that which) may be known (of God),' lit., 'the knowable of God,' referring to the physical universe, in the creation of which God has made Himself knowable, that is, by the exercise of man's natural faculties, without such supernatural revelations as those given to Israel.  See ACQUAINTANCE.


2. phaneros (φανερός, 5318), visible, manifest, is translated 'known' in Matt. 12:16 and Mark 3:12.  See APPEAR, MANIFEST, OPENLY, OUTWARDLY.


3. epistemon (ἐπιστήμων, 1990), akin to A, No. 5, knowing, skilled, is used in Jas. 3:13, A.V., 'endued with knowledge' (R.V. 'understanding').


4. agnostos (ἄγνωστος, 57), the negative of No. 1, 'unknown,' is found in Acts 17:23.


C. Nouns.

gnosis (γνῶσις, 1108), primarily a seeking to know, an enquiry (sic), investigation (akin to A, No. 1), denotes, in the N.T., knowledge, especially of spiritual truth;  it is used  (a) absolutely, in Luke 11:52;  Rom. 2:2; 15:I4; 1 Cor. 1:5; 8:1 (twice), 7, 10, 11;  13:2, 8;  I4:6; 2 Cor. 6:6; 8:7;  11:6;  Eph. 3:19;  Col. 2:3;  1 Pet. 3:7;  2 Pet. 1:5, 6;  (b) with an object: in respect of (1) God, 2 Cor. 2:14; 10:5;  (2) the glory of God, 2 Cor. 4:6;  (3) Christ Jesus, Phil. 3:8; 2 Pet. 3:18;  (4) salvation, Luke 1:77;  (c) subjectively, of God's knowledge, Rom. 11:33;  the word of knowledge, 1 Cor. 12:8;  knowledge falsely so called, 1 Tim. 6:20.


epignosis (ἐπίγνωσις, 1922), akin to A, No. 3, denotes exact or full knowledge, discernment, recognition, and is a strengthened form of No. 1, expressing a fuller or a full knowledge, a greater participation by the knower in the object known, thus more powerfully influencing him.  It is not found in the Gospels and Acts.  Paul uses it 15 times (16 if Heb. 10:26 is included) out of the 20 occurrences;  Peter 4 times, all in his 2nd Epistle.  Contrast Rom. 1:28 (epignosis) with the simple verb in ver. 21.  'In all the four Epistles of the first Roman captivity it is an element in the Apostle's opening prayer for his correspondents' well-being, Phil. 1:9;  Eph. 1:17;  Col. 1:9;  Philm. 6' (Lightfoot).


It is used with reference to God in Rom. 1:28;  10:2;  Eph. 1:17;  Col. 1:10;  2 Pet. 1:3;  God and Christ, 2 Pet. 1 2;  Christ, Eph. 4:13;  2 Pet. 1:8; 2:20;  the will of the Lord, Col. 1:9;  every good thing, Philm. 6, R.V. (A.V., 'acknowledging'); the truth, 1 Tim. 2:4;  2 Tim. 2:25, R.V.; 3:7; Tit. 1:1, R.V.;  the mystery of God, Col. 2:2, R.V., '(that they) may know' (A.V., 'to the acknowledgment of'), lit., 'into a full knowledge.'  It is used without the mention of an object in Phil. 1:9;  Col. 3:10, R.V., '(renewed) unto knowledge.'  See ACKNOWLEDGE.


3. agnosia (ἀγνωσία, 56), the negative of No. 1, ignorance, is rendered 'no knowledge' in 1 Cor. 15:34, R.V. (A.V., 'not the knowledge');  in 1 Pet. 2:15, 'ignorance.'  See IGNORANCE.


Note:  In Eph. 3:4, A.V., suncsis, understanding, is translated knowledge;  R.V., 'understanding.'  For kardiognostes see p. 207.



Vine, W. E.  (1940;  PDF p. 488).



A. Verb.

epiginosko (ἐπίγινώσκω, 1921) signifies (a) to know thoroughly (epi, intensive, ginosko, to know);  (b) to recognize a thing to be what it really is, to acknowledge, 1 Cor. 14:37 (R.V., 'take knowledge of'); 16:18;  2 Cor. 1:13, 14.   See KNOW, KNOWLEDGE, PERCEIVE.


Note:  In 1 John 2:23, 'acknowledgeth' (sic) translates the verb homologeo, to confess, R.V., 'confesseth.' (sic)


B. Noun.

epignosis (ἐπίγνωσις, 1922), akin to A, full, or thorough knowledge, discernment, recognition, is translated 'acknowledging' in the A.V. of 2 Tim. 2:25;  Tit. 1:1 and Philm. 6 (in all three, R.V., 'knowledge,' properly, 'thorough knowledge').  In Col. 2:2, A.V., 'ackowledgement,' (sic) R.V., 'that they may know' (i.e., 'unto the full knowledge').  See KNOWLEDGE.



Vine, W. E.  (1940;  PDF p. 488).



1. gnostos (γνῶστός, 1110), from ginosko, to know, signifies known, or knowable;  hence, one's acquaintance;  it is used in this sense, in the plural, in Luke 2:44 and 23:49.   See KNOWN, NOTABLE.


2. idios (ἴδιος, 2398), one's own, is translated 'acquaintance' in the A.V. of Acts 24:23, 'friends' (R.V.).  See COMPANY.



Vine, W. E.  (1940;  PDF p. 877).



A. Verb.

proginosko (προγινώσκω, 4267), to know before (pro, before, ginosko, to know), is used (a) of Divine knowledge, concerning (1) Christ, 1 Pet. 1:20, R.V., 'foreknown' (A.V., 'foreordained');  (2) Israel as God's earthly people, Rom. 11:2;  (3) believers, Rom. 8:29;  the foreknowledge of God is the basis of His foreordaining counsels;  (b) of human knowledge, (1) of persons, Acts 26:5;  (2) of facts, 2 Pet. 3:17.


B. Noun.

prognosis (πρόγνωσις, 4268), a foreknowledge (akin to A.), is used only of Divine foreknowledge, Acts 2:23; 1 Pet. 1:2.  Foreknowledge is one aspect of omniscience;  it is implied in God's warnings, promises and predictions.  See Acts 15:18.  God's foreknowledge involves His electing grace, but this does not preclude human will.  He foreknows the exercise of faith which brings salvation.  The Apostle Paul stresses especially the actual purposes of God rather than the ground of the purposes, see, e.g., Gal. 1:16; Eph. 1:5, 11.  The Divine counsels will ever be unthwartable.  Cf. FORESHEW.



Vine, W. E.  (1940;  PDF p. 988-989).



A. Nouns.

1. agnoia (ἄγνωια, 52), lit., want of knowledge or perception (akin to agnoeo, to be ignorant), denotes ignorance on the part of the Jews regarding Christ, Acts 3:17;  of Gentiles in regard to God, 17:30;  Eph. 4:18 (here including the idea of wilful (sic) blindness:  see Rom. 1:28, not the ignorance which mitigates guilt);  1 Pet. 1:14, of the former unregenerate condition of those who became believers (R.V., 'in the time of your ignorance').


2. agnosia (ἀγνωσία, 56) denotes ignorance as directly opposed to gnosis, which signifies knowledge as a result of observation and experience (a, negative, ginosko, to know;  cp. Eng., agnostic);  1 Cor. 15:34 ('no knowledge');  1 Pet. 2:15.  In both these passages reprehensible ignorance is suggested.  See KNOWLEDGE.


3. agnoema (ἀγνόημα, 51), a sin of ignorance, occurs in Heb. 9:7, 'errors' (R.V. marg. 'ignorances').  For the corresponding verb in Heb. 5:2 see B, No. 1.  What is especially in view in these passages is unwitting error.  For Israel a sacrifice was appointed, greater in proportion to the culpability of the guilty, greater, for instance, for a priest or ruler than for a private person.  Sins of ignorance, being sins, must be expiated.  A believer guilty of a sin of ignorance needs the efficacy of the expiatory sacrifice of Christ, and finds 'grace to help.'  Yet, as the conscience of the believer receives enlightenment, what formerly may have been done in ignorance becomes a sin against the light and demands a special confession, to receive forgiveness, 1 John 1:8, 9.


4. idiotes (ἰδιώτης, 2399), primarily a private person in contrast to a State official, hence, a person without professional knowledge, unskilled, uneducated, unlearned, is translated 'unlearned' in 1 Cor.14:16, 23, 24, of those who have no knowledge of the facts relating to the testimony borne in and by a local church; 'rude' in 2 Cor. 11:6, of the Apostle's mode of speech in the estimation of the Corinthians;  'ignorant men,' in Acts 4:13, of the speech of the Apostle Peter and John in the estimation of the rulers, elders and scribes in Jerusalem.


While agrammatoi ('unlearned') may refer to their being unacquainted with Rabbinical learning, idiotai would signify 'laymen;'  in contrast with the religious officials;  See RUDE, UNLEARNED.


B. Verbs.

1. agnoeo (ἀγνοέω, 50), signifies (a) to be ignorant, not to know, either intransitively, 1 Cor. 14:38 (in the 2nd occurrence in this verse, the R.V. text translates the Active Voice, the margin the Passive);  I Tim. 1:13, lit., 'being ignorant (I did it);'  Heb. 5:2, 'ignorant;'  or transitively, 2 Pet. 2:12, A.V., 'understand not,' R.V., 'are ignorant (of);'  Acts 13:27, 'knew (Him) not;'  17:23, R.V., '(what ye worship) in ignorance,' for A.V., '(whom ye) ignorantly (worship),' lit., '(what) not knowing (ye worship);'  also rendered by the verb to be ignorant that, or to be ignorant of, Rom. 1:13;  10:3; 11:25;  1 Cor. 10:1;  12:1;  2 Cor. 1:8;  25:11;  1 Thess 4:13;  to know not, Rom. 2:4;  6:3;  7:1;  to be unknown (Passive Voice), 2 Cor. 6:9;  Gal. 1:22;  (b) not to understand, Mark 9:32;  Luke 9:45.  See KNOW, UNDERSTAND.


2. lanthano (λανθάνω, 2990); for 2 Pet. 3:5, 8, A.V., see FORGET.


Note:  For adjectives see UNLEARNED.



Vine, W. E.  (1940;  PDF p. 1524-1526).



A. Verbs.

1. suniemi (συνίημι, 4920), primarily, to bring or set together, is used metaphorically of perceiving, understanding, uniting (sun), so to speak, the perception with what is perceived, e.g., Matt. 13:13-15, I9, 23, 51;  15:10;  16:12;  17:13, and similar passages in Mark and Luke;  Acts 7:25 (twice) 28:26, 27;  in Rom. 3:11, the present participle, with the article, is used as a noun, lit., 'there is not the understanding (one),' in a moral and spiritual sense;  Rom. 15:21; 2 Cor. 10:12, R.V., 'are (without) understanding,' A.V., 'are (not) wise;'  Eph. 5:17, R.V., 'understand.'  See CONSIDER, Note (2).


2. noeo (νοέω, 3539), to perceive with the mind, as distinct from perception by feeling, is so used in Matt. 15:17, A.V., 'understand,' R.V., 'perceive;'  16:9, 11;  24:15 (here rather perhaps in the sense of considering) and parallels in Mark (not in Luke);  John 12:10;  Rom. 1:20; 1 Tim. 1:7;  Heb. 11:3;  in Eph. 3:4, A.V., 'may understand' (R.V., 'can perceive');  3:20, 'think;'  2 Tim. 2:7, 'consider.'  See CONSIDER, No. 4.


3. ginosko (γινώσκω, 1097), to know, to come to know, is translated to understand in the A.V. in Matt. 26:10 and John 8:27 (R.V., to perceive);  A.V. and R.V. in John 8:43;  10:6; in 10:38, R.V. (in some texts pisteuo, A.V., 'believe');  A.V. and R.V. in 12:16;  13:7, R.V., A.V., 'know' (see Note under KNOW, No. 2);  Acts 8:30;  in Phil. 1:12, A.V., R.V., 'know' (in some texts, Acts 24:11, A.V.).  See KNOW, No. 1.


4. epistamai (ἐπίσταμαι, 1987), to know well, is rendered to understand in Mark 14:68;  Jude 10, R.V., 2nd clause (A.V., 'know').  See KNOW, No. 5.


5. punthanomai (πυνθάνπμαι, 4441), to inquire, is rendered to understand in Acts 23:34.  See INQUIRE.


6. gnorizo (γνωρίζω, 1107), to make known, is rendered 'I give . . . to understand' in 1 Cor. 12:3.  See KNOW, No. 8.


7. agnoeo (ἀγνοέω, 50), to be ignorant, is rendered 'they understood not' in Mark 9:32;  Luke 9:45;  in 2 Pet. 2:12, A.V., R.V., 'they are ignorant of.'  See IGNORANT, B, No. 1.


Notes:  (1) In 1 Cor. 13:2, A.V., oida, to know, to perceive, is rendered 'understand' (R.V., 'know');  so in 14:16.  (2) For manthano, rendered 'understand' in Acts 23:27, A. V., see LEARN, No. 1.  (3) In 1 Cor. 13:11, A.V., phroneo, to be minded, is rendered 'I understood' (R.V., 'I felt').  (4) For parakoloutheo, Luke 1:3, A.V., 'have perfect understanding of,' see TRACE.


B. Adjectives.

1 eusemos (εὔσημοσ, 2154) primarily denotes conspicuous or glorious (as in Ps. 81:3, Sept.;  E.V., 'solemn'), then, distinct, clear to understanding, 1 Cor. 14:9, 'easy to be understood' (A.V., marg., 'significant').


2. dusnoetos (δυσνόητος, 1425), hard to be understood (dus, a prefix like Eng., mis- or un-, and A, No. 2), occurs in 2 Pet. 3:16.



A. Nouns.

1. nous (νοῦς, 3563), for which see MIND, No. 1, is translated 'understanding' in Luke 24:45, A.V. (R.V., 'mind');  1 Cor. 14:14, 15 (twice), 19;  Phil. 4:7;  Rev. 13:18.


2. sunesis (σύνεσις, 4907), akin to suniemi, to set together, to understand, denotes (a) the understanding, the mind or intelligence, Mark 12:33;  (b) understanding, reflective thought, Luke 2:47;  1 Cor. 1:19, R.V., 'prudence;'  Eph. 3:4, R.V. (A.V., 'knowledge');  Col. 1:9;  2:2;  2 Tim. 2:7, See PRUDENCE, No. 2.


3. dianoia (διάνοια, 1271), for which see MIND, No. 2, is rendered 'understanding' in Eph. 4:18;  1 John 5:20 (in some texts, Eph. 1:18, A.V., for kardia, 'heart,' R.V.).


B. Adjective.

asunetos (ἀσύνετος, 801), without understanding or discernment (a, negative, sunetos, intelligent, understanding), is translated 'without understanding' in Matt. 15:16;  Mark 7:18;  Rom. 1:31;  10:19, R.V., 'void of understanding' (A.V., 'foolish');  in Rom. 1:21, R.V., 'senseless' (A.V., 'foolish').


Note:  In 1 Cor. 14:20, A.V., phren, the mind, is translated 'understanding' (twice), R.V., 'mind.'